Mary Alice Smith

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Room 201B, Environmental Health Science Building
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602-2102

Educational Background: 
Ph.D., University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Area of Specialty: 
  • My laboratory develops model systems to identify microbial and chemical agents that affect pregnancy and development, and we use those models to investigate mechanisms of toxicity and develop therapies for treating adverse effects.

  • Developmental and reproductive toxicology

  • Microbial and chemical risk assessment
Research Interests: 
  • Effects of toxicants on reproduction and development
  • Environmental and microbial risk assessment methodology
  • Effects of pathogens on pregnancy and development
  • In vitro and in vivo models for toxicity testing

For more information about listeriosis during pregnancy, please see the following USDA fact sheet:


Dr. Smith's graduate student, Denita Williams, receives award for research:

Professional Affiliations: 
  • Society of Toxicology
  • Teratology Society
  • International Association for Food Protection
  • Co-director, Academy of the Environment
  • Member of the Center for Food Safety, the Biomedical Health Science Institute and the Regenerative Bioscience Center
Selected Publications: 

Richardson, AN, EA Pollak, D Williams, AK Agyekum and MA Smith.  Susceptibility to Cronobacter sakazakii Decreases with Increasing Age in Neonatal CD-1 Mice.  Journal of Food Protection (in review, May, 2011).

Williams, D, S Dunn, A Richardson, JF Frank and MA Smith.  Time course of fetal tissue invasion by Listeria monocytogenes following an oral inoculation in pregnant guinea pigs.  Journal of Food Protection 74(2):248-253.  2011.

Richardson, AN, LR Beuchat, S Lambert, D Williams and MA Smith.  Comparison of virulence of three strains of Cronobacter sakazakii in neonatal CD-1 mice.  Journal of Food Protection 73(5):849-854.  2010.

Williams, D, J Castleman, C-C Lee, B Mote, and MA SmithRisk of fetal mortality after exposure to Listeria monocytogenes based on dose-response data from pregnant guinea pigs and primates.  Risk Analysis 29(11):1495-1505.  2009.

Richardson, A, S Lambert and MA Smith.  Neonatal mice as models for Cronobacter sakazakii infection in infants.  Journal of Food Protection 72(11):2363-2367.  2009.

Buchanan, RL, AH Havelaar, MA Smith, RC Whiting and E Julien.  The Key Events Dose-Response Framework:  Its potential for application to foodborne pathogenic microorganisms.  Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 49:718-728.  2009.

Julien, E, AR Boobis, SS Olin, and The ILSI Research Foundation Threshold Working Group.  The key events dose-response framework:  A cross-disciplinary mod-of-action based approach to examining dose-response and thresholds.  Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 49:682-689.  2009.

Irvin, EA, D Williams, SE Hamler, and MA Smith. Immunological and pathological changes in the placenta during infection with Listeria monocytogenes in pregnant guinea pigs.  Reproductive Toxicology 26:151-155.  2008. 

Irvin, EA, D Williams, KS Voss and MA SmithListeria monocytogenes infection in pregnant guinea pigs is associated with maternal liver necrosis, a decrease in maternal serum TNF-aconcentrations, and an increase in placental apoptosis.  Reproductive Toxicology 26:123-129.  2008. 

Jensen, A, D Williams, EA Irvin, L Gram and MA Smith.  A processing plant persistent strain of Listeria monocytogenes crosses the feto-placental barrier in a pregnant guinea pig model.  Journal of Food Protection 71(5):1028-1034.  2008.

Smith, MA, K Takeuchi, G Anderson, GO Ware, HM McClure, RB Raybourne, N Mytle, MP Doyle.  Dose response for Listeria monocytogenes-induced stillbirths in nonhuman primates.  Infection Immunity 76(2):726-731. 2008.

Williams, D, EA Irvin, RA Chmielewski, JF Frank, and MA Smith. 2007. Dose response of Listeria monocytogenes after oral exposure in pregnant guinea pigs. J Food Protection 70(5):1122-1128.

Henderson, WM and MA Smith. 2007. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in fetal and neonatal mice following in utero exposure to 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH). Toxicol Sci. 95(2):452-61. 2006 Nov 8; [Epub ahead of print].

Henderson, WM, EJ Weber, JW Washington, and MA Smith. 2007. Simplified method to determine fluorinated chemicals using a selective ion scan for perfluoroalkyl chain fragments with GC/MS. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 846(1-2):155-161. 2006 Sep 23; [Epub ahead of print].

Scofield, EH, WM Henderson, AB Funk, GL Anderson and MA Smith. 2006. Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and the metabolite, 2-methoxyacetic acid affect in vitro chondrogenesis. Reproductive Toxicology Nov;22(4):718-24. 2006, Jul 7, [Epub ahead of print].

Mytle, N, GL Anderson, S Lambert, MP Doyle and MA Smith. 2006. Effect of fat content on infection of Listeria monocytogenes in a mouse model. J Food Protection 69 (3):660-665.

Takeuchi, K, N Mytle, S Lambert, M Coleman, MP Doyle and MA Smith. 2006. Comparison of Listeria monocytogenes virulence in a mouse model. J Food Protection 69(4):842-846.

Yeo, A, MA Smith, D Lin, EL Riche, A Moore, J Elter, and S Offenbacher. 2005. Campylobacter rectus mediates growth restriction in pregnant mice. J Periodontol. 76(4):551-557.

Campbell, JL, Jr, MA Smith, JW Fisher and DA Warren. 2004. Dose-Response for Retinoic Acid-Induced Forelimb Malformations and Cleft Palate: A Comparison of Computerized Image Analysis and Visual Inspection. Births Defects Research (Part B) 71:289-295.

Smith, MA, K Takeuchi, RE Brackett, HM McClure, R Raybourne, K Williams, US Babu, GO Ware, JR Broderson, and MP Doyle. 2003. A nonhuman primate model for Listeria monocytogenes-induced stillbirths. Infection and Immunity 71(3):1574-1579.

Lin, DM, MA Smith, C Champagne, J Elter, J Beck, and S Offenbacher. 2003. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection during pregnancy increases maternal Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, suppresses maternal Interleukin-10 and enhances fetal growth restriction and resorption in mouse. Infection and Immunity 71: 5156-5162.

Lin, DM, MA Smith, J Elter, C Champagne, CL Downey, J Beck, and S Offenbacher. 2003. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in pregnant mice is associated with placental dissemination, an increase in placental Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio and fetal growth restriction. Infection and Immunity 71:5163-5168.

Anderson, GL., AB Funk, ES Hanson, JL Hill and MA Smith. 2001. Alternative methods for assessing chondrogenesis in micromass culture. Toxicology Methods 11:89-105.

Holcomb, DL, MA Smith, GO Ware, YC Hung, RE Brackett, and MP Doyle. 1999. Dose response models for food borne pathogens. Risk Anal 19(6):1091-1100.

Kanti, A, and MA Smith. 1997. Effects of heavy metals on chondrogenic differentiation of embryonic chick limb cells. In Vitro Toxicology 10(3): 329-338

More Publications

Courses Taught: 

EHSC 4490/6490 Environmental Toxicology
EHSC 7510 Fundamentals of Chemical and Microbial Risk Assessment
EHSC 8550 Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology
EHSC 8510 Environmental Risk Assessment and Risk Communication

Curriculum Vitae: